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  I want to create here a source of knowledge for people who are interested in the technical details of classical equestrian maneuvers from the Renaissance period. I address this blog mainly to riders aspiring to ride in the style of that historical period.

THE INFLUENCE OF ITALIAN AND THE UNIFICATION OF EQUESTRIAN ART IN EUROPE in THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEETH CENTURIES

 

Figure 1. “Parnaso” by Andrea Mantegna - 1497. Source: analisidellopera.it

INTRODUCTION

The sixteenth-century European people focused on man and his life in all it manifestations - including horse riding.

The late fifteenth and sixteenth century in Italy was also characterized by a fascination with antiquity. The painting by Andrea Mantegna, dated to 1497, testifies to this fascination, as it shows the Greek Parnassos, with a winged horse featuring prominently on the right (Figure 1).

The same fascination can be seen in equestrian treatises, which include a large number of references to the ancient authors Xenophon and Pliny, as well as to Greek mythology and Roman culture.

One of the factors that changed the way of riding was the evolution of the fighting style and the increasing development of firearms and infantry. Instead of charging with a lance in heavy armor, the sixteenth-century cavalry developed to meet the demands of increased mobility.[0]

Because most of the early horsemanship treatises were written in the sixteenth-century Italy or by Italian authors, we can consider the area of Italy as the area in which the "fashion" for horsemanship as art arose.

Thus, Federico Grisone published his treatise in 1550, Cesare Fiaschi in 1556, Giovanni Battista Ferraro in 1560, Claudio Corte in 1562, Pasqual Caracciolo, in 1566 and these are the leading equestrian authorities who were most frequently cited in Europe in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Only after these treatises were published, there appeared numerous treatises on horsemanship in written in other European countries, including France, Germany, England, Portugal and Poland. There are of course excamples of earlier treatises like work of Xenofont (427–355 BC), Jordanus Rufus (1250-1256), Dom Duarte (1434), or Pietro Monte Collectanea (1480), but was writing very different in tone and content.

Federico Grisone mentioned that so far (1550) no one has compiled the rules of dressage in such a comprehensive form as himself:

„senza loro, è impossibile che si arrive in questa virtu compitamente, che ben si può dire che l'ignoranza di queste cose fusse la caggione che mai niuno havesse tentato scriver di tale dottrina:”[1]

And without the [proper] aids, it is impossible to reach complete virtue. One could say that the ignorance of these things is the reason that no one had ever tried write such a doctrine:

The development of printing also contributed to the spread of equestrian knowledge in Europe, which translated into the availability of the above-mentioned equestrian treatises and their translation into native languages. According to the list compiled by Bart Hartogsveld, there are about 54 known equestrian treaties for the period from 1500 to 1700, including 24 Italian, 10 German, 9 French, 4 English, 3 Polish and 2 Spanish works.[2] Some treaties are still unknown and we keep discovering new ones.[3]

Federico Grisone’s treatise has been translated into French, English, German and Portuguese; Claudio Corte’s into English; Pasqual Caracciolo’s into Spanish in 1568.[4]  one can see that most treatises on classical equestrian art were created in Italy, France, Germany, England, Spain and Poland, in other words, as we can see by looking at the map of the sixteenth-century Europe (see Figure 2), they were written in the central part of Europe.


Figure 2. A map of the sixteenth-century Europe. Source: alamy.com.

The popularization of equestrian knowledge was also influenced by travelling and learning of different noble arts, among others, the art of horse riding. For example, the French riding master Antoine de Pluvinel and Salomon de la Broue studied in Naples at the school of Giovanni Battista Pignatelli,[5] while the Polish riding master Krzysztof Dorohstajski studied under Antonio Pierre Ferraro.[6] The future king of Poland, Jan III Sobieski, learned horse riding in France.[7]

In 1609, the German cavalryman Georg Engelhard von Löhneysen wrote:

 

welche, wenn sie daheim hinter dem fen sitzen, nichts lernen können, und ist gemeine Brauch, daß sie solche für Pages oder Edelknaben den Fürsten und andern Herren auffzuwarten geben, oder schicken sie in die Kriege, unter die Cavallerey oder Fußvolck, oder aber auf eine Universitet, in Italien oder Franckreich.“[8]

 

who [i.e. the children] cannot learn anything if they are at home sitting behind the stove, and it is common custom that they are sent to serve as pages or squires of princes or other lords, or they send them to wars, as cavalry or infantry, or to a university, in Italy or in France.”

 The Englishman William Cavendish wrote in 1658:

Ce Noble & Excellent Art fut premierement commencé & inventé en Italie, ou tous les François & plusieurs d'autres Nations alloient pour l'apprendre"[9]

This noble and perfect art [of horse riding] was first begun and invented in Italy, where all the Frenchmen and many other nations went to learn it”.

It was common at the time to send young noblemen abroad to complete their education.

Another example is the opposite tendency, i.e. that of hiring foreign riding masters to serve at European courts: Dziano Fabro was employed at the Polish court,[10] Scipiona Campo in the Zygmunt August stud[11] and Filiponi at the court of Stanisław Lubomirski.[12] This tendency also applies to equestrian equipment, the makers of which were invited from abroad. In Poland at the turn of the years 1680-1733, twelve saddlers were invited from abroad and incorporated into the local institutions as the masters of saddlery of Old Warsaw in Poland. Two of these masters came from France, and one master from Austria, Germany, Sweden and Prussia.

FOREIGN OPINIONS

The feeling that Italy was a popular cultural centre for those wanting to master the art of horsemanship is expressed by many early modern European masters. This point can be illustrated by selected quotes from French, German, Spanish, English and Polish equestrian treaties (the Italian ones are deliberately excluded, as these can be less objective):

In 1584, the German master Markus Fugger refers to Federico Grisone and Claudio Corte in hisVon der Gestüterey: “Das ist Ein gründtliche… “:

"Vnnd letzlich, wann einer weiter von den Tugenden wissen will, die ein Bereytter haben sol, der lese den Claudio decorte, da wirdt er alles bey einander finden, für meine Person wolt ich gerne einen solchen Bereytter sehen, wie er einen beschreibet.”[13]

And, finally, when someone wants to know more about the virtues that a horseman should have, read Claudio de corte to find everything needed in one, for I would be glad to see such a rider as he [Corte] describes.

Early modern treatises also contain information not only about horseback riding or veterinarian issues, but also about how to select the people who would be in charge of the stable.

Writing in the same year as Markus Fugger, the Englishman Thomas Bedingfield provides in “The art of riding conteining diuerse necessarie instructionsa discussion of Claudio Corte’s writings and mentions Federico Grisone:

I haue thought good to remember the readers, that albeit Xenophon, Grison, Claudio, and others (men most excellent) haue prescribed sundrie rules and meanes how to handle horsses, & ride them with good grace and seemelines.”[14]

Writing only nine years after Bedingfield, in 1595, his compatriot John Astley in   “The art of riding set foorth in a breefe treatise”  likewise alludes to Xenophon, following this by references to two Italians, and Federico Grisone andPasqual Caracciolo. Astley also lists in details why Italy was so famous in this field:

“And what that worthie Gentelman Frederike Gryson was, everie one knoweth, of nation Italian (which nation hath long borne, and doth beare at this time daie the onelie praise of this noble excercise) and of the cite of Naples most famous of all other in Italie in this Respect and what his praise was there amongst the rest of excellent Riders, yea even at that time when this Art was in his highest perfection, doth appeare in that noble Carociolos writings.”[15]

References to Grisone appear in two further European treatises written in the last decade of the sixeenth century, those of Salomon de La Broue and Gervase Markham. They also allude to other authors, all of them Italian. In 1593, Salomon de La Broue in his “La cavalerice françois” refers to Federico Grisone, Baptiste Ferrare and Claudio Corte:

Ce que les Seigneurs Iean Baptiste Ferrare, Federic Grison, Glaudio Court, & quelques autres ont expliqué en leurs liures, par vn grand nombre de belles & apparentes raisons, & si doctement, que le mieux entendu en ceste profession, qui les pensera surpasser, se mettera en danger de demeurer en chemin donnant du nez en terre.[16]

 What masters Iean Baptiste Ferrare, Federic Grison, Glaudio Court, & a few others have explained in their books, using a great number of beautiful & clear arguments, & so learnedly that anyone best instructed in this profession who will think to surpass them will put himself in danger of falling down on his nose to the ground.

Writing in the same year as de La Broue, Gervase Markham in the “Cavalarice, or the English horseman” also refers to Federico Grisone, but also includes in his book Salomon la Broue in his list of authorities, as well as noting Baptista and the medieval Italian writer Lorenzo Rusio (Laurentius Rusius in Latin):

“so I wish it would likewise kindle some sparkes in others, who having attayed the top and height of all best perfection, might leave unto the world some famous records of ther worthie admirations; and not by their neglect, suffer a divine guist to perish with their naturall bodies, knowing that if either Xenophon, Russius, or Grison had bene so uncharitable, they should themselves with much more difficulty have attayned to that in which now they have no equal; and being by them manifested unto the world,“[17]

Poland, too, participated in the vogue for writing treatises on the art of horsemanship. An anonymous treatise published in  1600 “Gospodarstwo jezdeckie, strzelcze, y mysliwcze” [A riding, shooting and hunting farm] contains refences to elements associated with the Italian school of equitation.[18] In addition to the Usarska school (“winged hussar” school), this treaty also describes the Italian school with in alto maneuvers (airs above the ground) as the highest achievement.

Another Polish author, Krzysztof Mikołaj Dorohostajski in 1603 in his “Hippica To Iest O Koniach Xięgi” refers to Federico Grisone, Pierro Antonio Ferrara and Claudio Corte:

„koniuszy i cavalerito królewski Don Pietro Antonio Ferrara (mój dziwnie [bardzo] łaskawy mistrz) równego sobie czasu w chrześcijaństwie w nauce jeździeckiej nie mający”[19]

“equerry and royal cavalerito Don Pietro Antonio Ferrara (my very gracious master) he had no equal in equestrian science at the Christian world of that time”

 Further on, Dorohostajski writes about Corte:

„O czem Claudius Corte, zaiste mądry kawalkator”[20]

“What Claudius Corte, indeed wise cavalcator.”

Dorohostajski also refers to Italians in general:

„zwłaszcza Włoszy, u których tych wieków ta nauka najdoskonalsza”[21]

 “especially Italians, who have now reached perfection in this science.”

Thus, even in Poland, where the culture of the east had a very strong influence on the equestrian equipment and riding one can see admiration for Italian art.

The English master Nicolas Morgan of Crolane wrote in 1609 in “The perfection of horse-manship” refers to the Italians Federico Grisone, Colo Pagano, Pietro Pugliano, Giovan Barardino and Claudio Corte:

„all the Kingdoms of the world in greatest perfection, having at this day as famous Riders, as ever was Zenophon, Grovan Barardino, Colo Pagano, Frederick Gryson, John Pietro Puglino, Claudio Curto, or who foever.”[22]

The French author Pierre de la Noue in 1620 explains in La cavalerie françoise et italienne…:

representant en ce Tableau tout ce que les Cavaliers François & Italiens prattiquent auiourd'huy de plus beau pour la perfection du cheval à l'accomplissement de leurs louanges; & comprenant en peu de pages (sans affaiterie de discours) clairement, pour me communiquer d'autant plus facilement à ceux qui ne souhaittent rien tant que da se rendre bons Cavaliers.[23]

presenting in this painting [referring to the summary given in the previous sentences] everything that French and Italian riders practice today of the things that are most beautiful for equine perfection, until they achieve their glory; and providing [material] in a few pages (without pretentiousness in discourse) to communicate my thoughts clearly and easily to those who want nothing more than to become good riding masters.

Antoine de Pluvinel, writing in 1623 in France in “Le maneige royal”, refers to Pierro Antonio Ferraro and Jean Baptiste Pignateli:

Le n'aurois pas quitté la plus grande partie de celles du Seigneur Iean Baptiste Pignatel Gentilhomme Neapolitain, le plus excellent homme de cheval qui ait iamais esté de nostre siecle, ny auparauant, du quel i'ay appris vne partie de ce que sçay durant le temps de six annees que i'ay passees aupres de luy.[24]

I would not have abandoned most of the methods taught by the Seigneur Jean Baptiste Pignatel, a Neapolitan gentleman, the most excellent horseman of our century as well as of the preceding ones and from whom I have learned part of what I know during the six years I studied with him.

Here, the famous master of riding Pluvinel refers to the time he was studying in Italy with Seigneur Jean Baptiste Pignatel.

In 1638, the English author Robert Ward mentions  Federico Grisone and, elsewhere, Colo Pagano  in his “Animadversions of warre”:

„this was observed by that famous Rider Cola Pagano,”[25]

The Frenchman Jacques de Solleysel mentions in his 1672 treatise  Le Véritable Parfait Mareschal…  Pasqual Caracciolo and Giovanni Battista di Galiberto:

Les Italiens qui ont renouvellé les Arts & les Sciences ensevelies dans la Barbarie de plusieurs siecles, n'ont pas manqué d'écrire sur ce sujet des Ouvrages dignes d'admiration. Peut on rien voir de mieux achevé que La gloria del Cavallo del Seignor Pasqual Caracciollo, Autheur éclairé en toutes les belles Lettres, excellent Naturaliste, sç avant Medecin & consommé dans la methode de bien gouverner les Chevaux.[26]

The Italians, who have renewed art and science that had been buried in barbarism for several centuries, did not miss an opportunity to write admirable works on this subject. There is nothing better than "La gloria del Cavallo" by Senior Pasqual Caracciollo, an enlightened writer and an excellent naturalist, a trained doctor and experienced in the methods of good horse management."

It is hard to say why Caracciolo’s treatise is so little known today, despite the fact it has extremely precise descriptions of many exercises and a solid systematics.

The German master Johann Christoph Pinter in his 1688  treatise „Neuer, vollkommener, verbesserter…“ mentions Cesare Fiaschi, Pierro Antonio Ferraro and Pasqual Caracciolo. Pinter, like many other sixteenth- and seventeenth-century writers, boasts here about his knowledge of ancient writers:

wie aus derselben hinterlassenen Büchern oder Schrifften nachzulesen; sonderlich aber von der bekandtesten Autoren, unter welchen sonderlich zu erwegen, was Absyrtus, Anatolius, Agatotychus, Albertus, Boneventanus; Cassius, Collumella, Crescentius, Cicero, Caesar Fiaschii, Colombre, Dioscorides, Eumilius, Ferrara, Galenus, Gordano, Rusto, Hemerius, Hipocrates, Justinus, Litorius, Foelix, Lorenzo Rusio, Marcellus, Nicander, Pelangonius, Pistorius, Plinius, Palladius, Pasquala Caraciola, Ruellius, Siculus, Sipontinus, Salimis, Sabellius, Strabo, Soyter, Tiberius, Varro, Vegetius, Xenophon und Zehendorff, mit noch etlichen andern davon hinterlassen.[27]

as can be read from their books or writings; but above all from the most famous authors, among which it is especially worth paying attention to what is [said by] Absyrtus, Anatolius, Agatotychus, Albertus, Boneventanus; Zassius, Collumella, Crescentius, Cicero, Caesar Fiaschii, Colombre, Dioscorides, Eumilius, Ferrara, Galenus, Gordano, Rusto, Hemerius, Hipocrates, Justianus, Litorius, Fcelix, Lorenzo Rusio, Marcellus, Nicander, Pelangonius, Pistorius, Plinius, Palladius, Pasquala Caraciola, Ruellius, Siculus, Sipontinus, Salimis, Sabellius, Strabo, Soyter, Tiberius, Varro, Vegetius, Xenophon and untold others.

In 1689, the German Wolf Helmhardt von Hohberg mentions in „Die Vollkommene Pferd…“  Federico Grisone, Pasqual Caracciolo and Giovanni Battista:

Von der Farben Eigenschafft haben ausführlich geschrieben Federico Grisone in seinem ersten Buch von der Reutkunst bald im Anfang, und der vornehme Neapolitanische Cavalier, Herr Pasquale Caracciolo, in seinen schönen Wercke, das er Gloria del Cavallo nennet, im ersten Buch.[28]

Federico Grisone wrote in detail about the colour properties in his first book of equestrian art right at the beginning, and the noble Neapolitan Cavalier, Master Pasquale Caracciolo, in his beautiful work, entitled Gloria del Cavallo, in the first book.

Federico Grisone was probably the author who was most often cited and mentioned in the horsemanship of the time: he must have achieved extraordinary fame in the early modern Europe.


TERMINOLOGY


The early modern masters drew on Italian achievements, due to which Italian terminology was used throughout the entire training, a fact noted by Salomon de la Broue in his 1610 treatise:

Recognoissant le defaut des mots propres pour cest art en nostre langue Françoise, i'ay eu recours à l'Italienne, tant parce que les Cavaliers en usent plus cômunement, qu'aussi ils ont ie ne sçay quel air plus gaillard, sont plus significatifs, peuuent expliquer le sens par un mot, qui auroit besoin de plusieurs pour le faire entendre en François. Neantmoins par ce que ces mots, autres del art ne sont cognus à tous les François, ie les ay voulu relever de ceste peine par l'interpretation suyvante.[29]

Recognising the lack of appropriate terms for this art in our French language, I resorted to Italian, both because Riders use it more commonly and because Italian words have a more vigorous appearance, are more significant and can explain the meaning in just one word, while it would take several words to explain it in French. However, since these and other words of the art are not known to all French [riders], I wanted to help them [the riders] by providing the following interpretation.

The influence of Italian equestrian theory can also be seen in the language of horsemanship, because Italian equestrian terms are often used even in the treatises composed in the vernacular. Also we can note correlations or equivalents describing the same maneuvers or equipment between Italian and non-Italian nomenclature. Here are some examples:

- „bardella” (Ferrara 1602) becomes „pastine” (Winteri 1674),

- „cavezzone” (Palimieri c. 1600) becomes „kawecan” (Dorohstajski 1603),

- „posata” (Palimieri c. 1600) becomes „advance” (Markham 1607),

- „volta” (Fiaschi 1556) becomes „obracanie” (Dorohstajski  1603)

- „biscia” (Piccardnii c. 1600) becomes „wężyk” (Dorohstajski 1603) and „snake” (Markham 1607)

- „lumaca” (Corte 1562) becomes „ślimak” (Dorohstajski 1603),  

- „raddoppiate” (Fiaschi 1556) becomes „redopia” (Dorohstajski 1603),

- „capriola (Ferrara 1602) becomes „Kapriola” (the anonymous „Gospodarstwo jeździeckie” 1600).

 Changes in the equestrian terminology occurred after the center of equestrian culture moved to other countries and today we use mainly french terminology. Although the riders performed exactly the same "repelone" there, it was already called "passade" (Gueriniere 1731), and "Passate" (Santapaulina 1696), „volta stretta” – „piruyte” (Solleysel 1672), „corvette”- „corbeta” (Dehn 1637). 

This shown us how Italy had enormous influence on the later terminology of the equestrian world.


HORSES

It is probable that Italian achievements have gained such fame in Europe also because of the kinds of horses that have physical abilities that were well adopted to these exercises, so that the Italians could achieve extraordinary results in performing airs above the ground on these horses.

Pluvinel mentioned that although Italians was skill in equestrian art, when a horse proved to be difficult or incapable, they excluded him from training. In France, they did not reject such horses, but put time and patience in them.[48] These horses, and especially the Neapolitan horses, were among the most highly if not the highest prized of all breeds throughout Europe at that time.

But it was not only the Italians who thought highly of the Neapolitan horses. The English famous cavalryman Gervase Markham also praised the Neapolitan horses:

„I prefer (as most principall) the Courser of Naples; next them, our English bastards Coursers, and true English bred horses. Then Greeke, next the Barbarie, and then Spaniard.”[49]

Also the famous Polish riding master Krzysztof Dorohstajski wrote:

„Jaką zaś wspaniałość i powagę, zwłaszcza którą w kursyrach i dzianetach włoskich jawnie obaczyć możemy!”[50]

“What magnificence and seriousness, which we can see best in Italian coursers and jinettes!”


Figure 4A painting of a horse from the Venafro castle from the mid-sixteenth century. Source:(musei.molise.beniculturali.it). 

It was also a common practice in European countries to import foreign horses, not only Italian ones. Evidence of this practice can be found in Polish administrative documents:

"abyś dał Moretowi, słudze naszemu, trzy tysiące czerwonych złotych na skupienie koni, na potrzebę naszą, do Włoch i do Hispaniei"[51]

“that you would give Moret, our servant, three thousand red zlotys for the purchase of horses for our need from Italy and Spain.”


METHODS

In the works of European masters composed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, with the exception of eastern Europe,[30] there is an almost uniform system  of basic horse training, which builds on the system described in the first Italian treatises.

At the initial stage, the training begins with riding a colt using a bardella (straw saddle) and a cavezzone (cavesson). Then big circles (torni) and straight lines. Subsequently volta,[31] carierra,[32] repelone,[33] raddoppiate,[34] posata,[35] stops (fermo) or optional snake[36] (biscia) and snail[37] (caralogo) are practiced.

The key to the higher level is posata as an introduction to the school above the ground (meaneuvers with all legs above ground), where we also observe the same maneuvers in the treatises composed by different authors, such as passo un salto,[38] terre a terre,[39] fermo a fermo,[40] capriole[41] and corvette.[42]

Figure 3. Basic level exercises „a terra” from left: circles[43], repellon[44], snake[45], snail[46], radoppiate[47], Graphic: Marcin Ruda

There were, of course, exceptions to the above canon. A new trend in France also developed in the seventeenth century, thanks to the achievements of, among others, Pluvinel, La Broue, Jacques de Solleysel, William Cavendish and the later Robichon de La Guérinière, who started to change the training system. 

However, one can also find unfavorable opinions about the Italian way of training horses expressed by European people. For example, Poles have a slightly negative opinion about the usefulness of Italian methods:

„Sposób do jazdy ćwiczenia koni trojaki się tylko najduje: jeden przy ziemi zowią go Włoszy a terra; drugi z podnoszeniem (posata), zowią di mezza area; trzeci w skokach, a ten in alto nazywają. (...) tedy tymże kwoli opuściwszy ćwiczenie z podnoszeniem i w skokach, z których się naśmiewają (Polacy), chociaż niepotrzebnie.”[52]

“The way to train horses is threefold: one on the ground is called by Italians a terra; the second with lifting (posata), called di mezza area; the third is with jumping, and this one is called in alto. (...) and thus they skip the exercise with lifting and jumping, which they ridicule for no good reason.”

Writing in 1671, William Cavendish expressed his negative opinion more specifically, referring to both the equipment and the process of training used by Grisone in 1550. Cavendish’s negative assessment is related mainly to the timeline in training young horses, and we should to note that, by the time Cavendish published his treatise in the late seventeenth century, more than a hundred years has passed since the appearance of Grisone’s treatise:

Le vieux Grison, & plusieurs Autheurs Italiens, veulent qu'on se serve, pour les Poulains, d'une Bardelle, (qui est une selle de paille) à mettre sur leur dos, & d'un Cavesson de corde sur le nez: qui est une invention qui ne sert de rien qu'a perdre le temps. Ils veulent en suitte que pendant deux ou trois ans, on trotte les Poulains, dans des descentes & des monteés, pour, disent ils leur apprendre a s'arester; qui est une chose fort mal à propos, & qui consomme beaucoup de temps.[53]

The old Grison, and several Italian Authors want us to use for the Colts a Bardelle (which is a saddle of straw) to put on their back, & a Cavesson of rope on the nose, an invention which is nothing but a waste of time. Then, they want, that during two or three years, we trot the Colts downhill and uphill [on a hills], in order, as they say, to teach them to stop; which is a very inappropriate thing and consumes a lot of time.

Frederic Magnin in his book also cites de La Noue, explaining that, for de La Noue, the Italians use spurs too much on young horses and work young horses in a very unsystematic way[54]


CONCLUSION

 In all, we can see that, by the first decades of the seventeenth century, Italy lost its hegemonic character as a center of equestrian culture. Foreign riders began to follow their own path, and the center of equestrian culture and knowledge moved to France.

However, the founders of the French school of equitation, such as La Broue, Pluvinel and others developed the achievements of the Italian masters.[55]

Soon after the centre of the equestrian culture shifted from Italy, England took over as the most famous nation of horsemen, with their races and the creation of the English Thoroughbred horse as a breed, and the Angloman era emerged.

Even if Italy has lost its lead in this particular field of equitation, it has left a mark on it, which is clearly visible in horse riding to this day, as the Italian manege figures and their names are still used today in both classical dressage and other equestrian sports.




BIBLIOGRAPHY:

[0] Tomassini, Giovanni Battista. The Italian Tradition of Equestrian Art: A Survey of the Treatises on Horsemanship from the Renaissance and the Centuries Following. Virginia: Xenophon Press, 2014. p. 29 

[1] Tobey, Elizabeth. Federico Grisone's "The Rules of Riding". Tempe, Arizona: ACMRS, 2014. p. 395

[2] Bart Hartogsveld, “Historical Dressage Literature.”  http://barthartogsveld.nl/historical-dressage-literature/ (dostęp w grudniu 2020).

[3] Frédéric Magnin, ed. Une école d’équitation à la fin de la Renaissance. Le traité inédit du sieur de Lugny (1597). A.H.C.E., 2019.

[4] Bart Hartogsveld, “Historical Dressage Literature.” 

[5] Magnin, Frédéric. SIX MANUSCRITS D'UN TRAITÉ D'ÉQUITATION INÉDIT: "L'ORDRE QUE DOIBT TENIR LE CAVALIER ENVERS SES ESCOLIERS", PAR LOUIS DE CHARDON, SIEUR DE LUGNY. Librairie Droz. T. 76, No. 1 (2014). p. 108

[6] Dorohostajski, Krzysztof Mikołaj. Hippika to jest księga o koniach. Oświęcim: Napoleon V, 2016. p. 30

[7] Fijałkowski, Wojciech. Szlakiem Jana III Sobieskiego. Warszawa: PTTK, "Kraj", 1984. p. 8

[8] Löhneysen, Georg Engelhard. Della Cavalleria Das ist: Gründlicher vnd außführlicher Bericht, von allem was zu der löblichen Reuterey gehörig, vnd einem Cavallier zu wissen von nöhten Jnsonderheit von Turnier- vnd Ritterspielen, Erkentnis vnd Vnterschied, Auch Cur vnd Wartung der Pferde, vnd wie man dieselben auff allerley Manier abrichten vnd zeumen sol. Remlingen: Privatpresse des Georg Engelhard von Löhneysen, 1624. p. 9. Unless otherwise stated, all translations into English are the author's own.

[9] Cavendish, William. Méthode nouvelle et invention extraordinaire de Dresser les Chevaux. London: Milbourn, 1671. p. 1

[10] Iglikowski, Marcin. Polska szkoła jazdy w XVII wieku. Oświęcim: Eko-Dom, 2015.

[11] Maroszek, Józef. Dzieje obszaru gminy Jaświły do końca XVIII wieku. Białystok: Wydawnictwo Prymat Mariusz Śliwowski, 2004. p. 34

[12] Gołębiowski, Łukasz. Domy i dwory: przy tém opisanie apteczki, kuchni, stołów, uczt, biesiad, trunków i pijatyki... Warszawa: Glücksberga, 1830. p. 200

[13] Fugger, Markus. Von der Gestüterey: das ist eine gründtliche Beschreibung wie unnd wa man ein Gestüt von guten edlen Kriegsrossen auffrichten, underhalten und wie man die jungen von einem Jar zu dem andern erziehen. Frankfurt: Feyerabend, 1584. p. 100.

[14] Bedingfield, Thomas. The art of riding conteining diuerse necessarie instructions, demonstrations, helps, and corrections apperteining to horssemanship; written at large ... a man most excellent in this art. (1584). EEBO Editions, ProQuest 2010. p. VII.

[15] Astley, John. The art of riding set foorth in a breefe treatise, with a due interpretation of certeine places alledged out of Xenophon, and Gryson, verie expert and ... skill and experience in the art. (1595).  EEBO Editions, ProQuest 2010. p. 10.

[16] Broue, Salomon. Le cavalerice francois, contenant les preceptes principaux qu'il faut obseruer exactement pour bien dresser les chevaux aux exercices de la carriere et de la campagne ... 3. ed. rev. et augm. Paris: Abel l'Angelier, 1613. p. 7.

[17] Markham, Gervase. Cavalarice. Or the English horseman: contayning all the art of horsemanship, asmuch as is necessary for any man to vnderstand, whether hee be horse-breeder, horse-ryder, horse-hunter, horse-runner, horse-ambler, horse-farrier, horse-keeper, coachman, smith, or sadler. Together, with the discouery of the subtil trade or mystery of hors-coursers, and an explanation of the excellency of a horses vnderstanding. London: E. Allde for E. White 1617. p. A2.

[18] Wojcicki K. Wł. Biblioteka Starożytna Pisarzy Polskich, Wydanie drugie, Tom III. Warszawa: S. Orgelbrand, 1854

[19] Dorohostajski, p. 30.

[20] Dorohostajski, p. 41.

[21] Dorohostajski, p. 101.

[22]Crolane, Nicolas Morgan. The perfection of horse-manship, drawne from Nature, Arte, and Practise. London: Edward White, 1609. p. B1.

[23] La Noue, Pierre. La cavalerie françoise et italienne, ou, L'art de bien dresser les chevaux, selon les preceptes des bonnes écoles des deux nations: tant pour le plaisir de la carriere, et des carozels que pour le service de la guerre. Public Library in Lyon: C. Morillon, 1620. Rozdział: avx cavaliers.

[24] Pluvinel, Antoine. L' Exercice de monter à Cheval. Universiteit Gent: E. Loyson, 1660. p. 47.

[25] Ward, Robert. Animadversions of Warre, Or, A Militarie Magazine of the Trvest Rvles ... for the Managing of Warre ... London: Iohn Dawson, and are to be sold by Francis Eglesfield, 1639. p. 290.

[26] Solleysel, Jacques. Le Veritable parfait mareschal... Ensemble Un Traité du Haras... Reveu, corrigé et augmenté de plus d'un tiers en cette derniere edition Par le Sieur de Solleysel... Trévoux: Chez André Molin, 1675.  Chapter: avis av lectevr.

[27] Pinter, Johann Christoph. Neuer, vollkommener, verbesserter, und ergäntzter Pferd-Schatz. Frankfurt (Oder): Oehrling, 1688, p. 378.

[28] Hohberg, Wolf Helmhardt. Die Vollkommene Pferd- und Reit-Kunst : samt auszführlichem Unterricht der Edlen Stutery : Darinnen vorgestellet werden Die unterschiedliche Arten/ Schönheit/ Güte/ Mängel/ Zäum- Beschlag- und übrige Wartung der Pferde; ... nebst getreuer Information; Was einem vorsichtigen Stutt-Meiser/ in Auferziehung der Follen ... nöthig seye ... ; Deme noch endlichen beygefügt Ein Vorrath bewährtister Artzney-Mitteln ... Nürnberg: Endter, 1689,  p. 14.

[29] Broue, Salomon. Le cavalerice francois, contenant les preceptes principaux qu'il faut obseruer exactement pour bien dresser les chevaux aux exercices de la carriere et de la campagne ... 3. ed. rev. et augm. Paris: Abel l'Angelier, 1613. p. 10.

[30] Tobey, p. 409.

[31] Tight kind of piruete.

[32] Straight line of charging.

[33] Carierre with voltas on the ends.

[34] Double pieruete to the left and to the right.

[35] Modern pesata – lifting front of the horse with putting rump to the ground, higher than levade.

[36] Weawing of the horse to the left and right on the straight line.

[37] Spiral pattern teaching horse to making tight piruete. 

[38] Step and jump into air.

[39] Collected two-beat canter.

[40] Terre a terre in one place.

[41] Jump into air with kicks of the back legs.

[42] Similar to terre a terre with phase of all legs above ground.

[43] Fiaschi, Cesare. Trattato dell'imbrigliare, maneggiare, et ferrare Cavalli. Venice: francesco de Leno, 1563, p. 69.

[44] Ferraro, Pirro Antonio. Cavallo frenato di Pirro Antonio Ferraro,... diviso in quatro libri. Precede l'opera di Gio. Battista Ferraro,... dove si tratta il modo di conservar le razze,... disciplinar cavalli e il modo di curargli.. Neapol: Antonio Pace, 1602, p. 50.

[45] Piccardini, Valerio; Palmieri, Lorenzino. Scritti di Cavaleria; Perfette Regole et Modi di Cavalcare. manuscript, circa 1600. p. 38.

[46] Winter, Georg Simon. Georg Simon Winters neuer Tractat von der Reith-Kunst: in zwey Haupt-Theil unterschieden : der erste handelt, wie man einen grossen Herrn, Cavallier und Scholarn solle unterweisen, zu Pferd zu sitzen ..., der andere, von der Bestellung eines wolerbauten Marstalls ... Ulm: Kühn, 1674, p. 26.

[47] Fiaschi, p. 67

[48] Pluvinel, Antoine. The Maneige Royal. Xenophon Press, 2010, p. XVII.

[49] Markham, p. 11.

[50] Dorohstajski, p. 15

[51] Janicki, Ignacy. Acta historica res gestas Stephani Bathorei regis Poloniae illustrantia a 3 martii 1578 usque ad 18 aprilis 1579. Kraków: J. Bergera, 1881, p. 217.

[52] Dorohstajski, p. 91

[53] Cavendish, p. 21.

[54] Magnin, 2019, p. 157

[55] Tomassini, p. 215.

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